Building Envelope Inspection

To ensure the Building Envelope (including Roof, Masonry, Curtain Wall, Precast Concrete,
Glazing Panels, Stucco, Metal Cladding, EIFS, Parking Garages, Balcony, Air/Vapour/Thermal
Barriers and Water Proofing & Sealants) is Intact, we offer
  • Building Envelope Design,
  • Building Envelope Specifications,
  • Building Envelope Design Reviews,
  • Building Envelope Analysis, including thermal infra-red scanning
  • Building Envelope Construction & Compliance Inspections & Reviews
  • Building Envelope Inspections, repairs and warranty reviews
  • Building Envelope Repair / Retrofit Specification and Repair Review
  • Evaluation of Building Envelope Materials and Components for Compliance and Durability
  • Design, Specifications, Design Reviews, Inspections for Rehabilitation / Restoration of
    Building Envelope

Our Building Envelope Inspection Experts have thorough understanding of Building Science
including the following:

Materials Knowledge:
  • materials physical and chemical properties,
  • mechanisms of deterioration,
  • behaviour of wood, concrete, metals, plastics, gypsum and other materials as they are used in building
    envelope construction including moisture transport, moisture retention or storage characteristics, and relative
    movement, freeze-thaw characteristics,
  • determination/measurement of moisture content levels of materials used in building envelope construction,
  • performance thresholds and relationships between materials and environments: corrosion rates, fungal
    germination and growth thresholds, decay of wood and prevention of these mechanisms of deterioration;

Building Physics:
  • defining boundary conditions: interior, exterior climate and microclimate,
  • impact of location, weather, and building shape on exposure to wetting and building envelope design;
  • moisture physics: storage and transport processes by diffusion, convection, capillary action, gravity, wind
    pressure, sorption relationships and osmosis,
  • use of heat, air and moisture flow calculations, and simulation tools for building envelope design and analysis,
  • heat transfer: conduction, convection, radiation, and secondary modes due to latent phase changes,
  • energy usage calculations and analysis, simulation tools,
  • mass transport and condensation: air, water vapour and pollutants,
  • consideration of wetting, drying, storage and material properties to prevent problematic accumulation of
    moisture within the building envelope,
  • accommodation of thermal and moisture movements, and
  • accommodation of structural loads;


Components, Assemblies and Other Building Systems:
  • interdependence of elements of the building envelope with other building systems and
  • functional requirements: including but not limited to environmental control systems (i.e. lighting, heating
    cooling and ventilation system), plumbing, structure, and fire safety,
  • integration of theoretical and technical knowledge regarding materials to apply to elements that are used as
    part of the building envelope, and
  • assessment of the appropriateness of heat, air and moisture control functions of the elements that comprise
    the building envelope.

Construction Field Review
Our Building Envelope Inspection Experts have extensive experience in reviewing the construction of building  
envelope elements in the field for the purpose of confirming substantial compliance with the construction
documents and the building code.

Our Building Envelope Inspection Experts possess the ability to identify deviations from the design intent, as well as
variations in site conditions from those planned or expected. To assist in determining whether the construction of
the building envelope is in substantial compliance with the construction documents, our building envelope experts
possess the ability to review test results, manufacturers’ product information, shop drawings, prototypes, and

Our Building Envelope Inspection Experts are very knowledgeable of contract administration responsibilities for
new  construction projects, as well as for building envelope rehabilitation and renewal construction projects  where
we provide a broader scope of services, such as acting as payment certifier.

Our construction phase field review includes, but not necessarily be limited to the following, and may vary
depending upon the complexity of the construction of the building envelope and the experience of the contractor:
  • Attend construction meetings, as required.
  • Assist in confirming, reporting and scheduling procedures for testing and field reviews.
  • Assist in confirming that the qualifications of fabricators meet the specifications.
  • Assist in review of submittals for general compliance with the construction documents.
  • Assist with the review of building envelope-related shop drawings and other submittals for general
    conformance with the construction documents and the intent of the design.
  • Visit the site at sufficient frequency to ascertain whether the work substantially complies in all material
    respects with the construction documents and applicable portions of the Ontario Building Code. The review
    includes all building envelope assemblies and a substantial number of the details – rather than just a
    representative sampling – for those building envelope elements reviewed or designed by us in earlier project
  • Prepare field review reports outlining observations and discrepancies in the work
  • Discrepancies noted during field reviews tracked, and the resolution of these discrepancies noted such that
    a list of unresolved discrepancies can be provided to the project team at any stage of the project. We
    attempt to confirm that discrepancies have been resolved in a satisfactory manner. This confirmation is
    preferably achieved through direct observation but, when this is not possible, other members of the design
    and construction team can be relied upon to confirm resolution.
  • Review reports provided by building envelope material and component manufacturers, as well as reports
    prepared by other Professionals who are reviewing building envelope elements.
  • Assist in arranging for and observing the mock-up and/or testing of key building envelope elements such as
    wall assemblies or window installations, where required.
  • Review the continuity of thermal insulation, moisture, air and vapour barriers.
  • Review drainage paths.
  • Review the acceptability of the moisture content of wood products.
  • Confirm that building envelope components and materials used are those specified in the construction
    documents or are acceptable alternatives.
  • Upon completion of construction, complete, sign and seal applicable schedules or supporting schedules, and
    submit to the appropriate party.

Our Building Envelope Experts have knowledge and extensive experience in the application of building science
principles as they relate to the inspection of performance of the building envelope. This competency includes the
ability to apply informed, professional judgment calls where risk assessment is concerned, including:
  • the identification of risks and benefits of alternatives;
  • the determination of consequences of selection of alternatives, decisions and actions;
  • the relative costs of various acceptable alternatives; and
  • the application and implication of local construction practices.

A building envelope is an encapsulating physical separation between the conditioned and unconditioned
environment of a building including the resistance to air, water, moisture, heat, light, and noise transfer. The
physical components of the building envelope include the foundation, roof,walls, doors, windows, ceiling, and their
related barriers and insulation.  Building envelopes will require ongoing inspection and maintenance to perform
their function and be serviceable for the long term.

The performance of the building envelope is impacted by a number of sub‐systems, such as heating, cooling and
ventilating equipment, plumbing and electrical systems. The interaction of the sub‐systems with the components of
the building envelope, as well as certain activities of the occupants, can affect the performance of the building

Control of air flow is important to ensure indoor air quality, control energy consumption, avoid condensation (and
thus help ensure durability), and to provide comfort. Control of air movement includes air barrier or through
components of the building envelope (interstitial) itself, as well as into and out of the interior space, which can affect
building insulation performance greatly.  The control of windwashing (cold air passing through insulation) and
convective loops which are air movements within a wall or ceiling that may result in about 20% of the heat loss
alone. Minimizing air leakage in a building envelope results in annual energy savings of up to 40%.

The dimensions, performance and compatibility of materials, fabrication process and details connections and
interactions are the main factors that determine the effectiveness and durability of the building envelope.

Common measures of the effectiveness of a building envelope include physical protection from weather and climate
(comfort), indoor air quality (hygiene and public health), durability and energy efficiency. In order to achieve these
objectives, building envelope must include a solid structure, a drainage plane, an air barrier, a thermal barrier, and
may include a vapor barrier. Moisture control (e.g. damp proofing) is also very essential.

In order for a building envelope system to perform effectively, building envelope must be able to manage both
interior and exterior moisture sources. Control of rain is most fundamental, and there are numerous strategies to
this end, namely, perfect barriers, drained screens, and mass / storage systems.  The entire roof from the surface
of the shingles to the interior paint finish on the ceiling comprises the building envelope. The thermal envelope, or
heat flow control layer, is part of a building envelope like an insulated attic which is the primary thermal control layer
between the interior and the exterior. One of the main purposes of a roof is to resist water. Two broad categories of
roofs are flat and pitched. Flat roofs are built to resist standing water. Pitched roofs are designed to shed water but
not resist standing water which can occur during wind-driven rain or ice damming. Typically pitched roofs are
covered with an underlayment material beneath the roof covering material as a second line of defense. Domestic
roof construction may also be ventilated to help remove moisture from leakage and condensation.

Generally presence of water on the exterior of the building; an opening for the water to move through, and a driving
force (such as wind or gravity) are needed for water to penetrate into a building. Wind will create a pressure
difference between indoors and outdoors. In both face seal and rainscreen systems, this pressure change occurs
primarily at the most airtight element in the wall construction. This air‐tight material is referred to as the air‐barrier.
Face seal refers to a strategy for rain penetration control that relies solely on the elimination of holes in the
exposed exterior face of the assembly. Face sealed walls rely on creating a completely impervious barrier to water
at the outer face of the wall. This is also the air barrier, thus it is at the surface at which the pressure drop occurs.
This surface is frequently wetted, and any imperfections in the face seal will certainly lead to air movement through
the holes, which in turn will create the driving force required to bring the water into the wall assembly, and trap it
there. The water remains in the wall, or dries slowly, causing deterioration of wood components.

Walls do not get as severe water exposure as roofs but still leak water. Typs of wall systems with regard to water
penetration are barrier, drainage and surface-sealed walls. Barrier walls are designed to allow water to be
absorbed but not penetrate the wall, and include concrete and some masonry walls. Drainage walls allow water that
leaks into the wall to drain out such as cavity wlls. Drainage walls may also be ventilated to aid drying such as
rainscreen and pressure equalization wall systems. Sealed-surface walls do not allow any water penetration at the
exterior surface of the siding material. Generally most materials will not remain sealed over the long term and this
system is very limited, but ordinary residential construction often treats walls as sealed-surface systems relying on
the siding and an underlayment layer sometimes called housewrap.

Moisture can enter basements through the walls or floor. Basement waterproofing and drainage keep the walls dry
and a moisture barrier is needed under the floor.

The building envelope should keep out:
• temperature extremes
• moisture, as vapour or liquid
• dust
• wind

Additionally, to maintain durability, the building envelope should not permit weather elements to be trapped inside
the walls. This may cause wall components to deteriorate, and continue to decay. In the early stages, it can usually
be remedied relatively inexpensively. As time progresses costs increase exponentially.

The building envelope requires regular inspection and maintenance. Some maintenance guides suggest the
exterior of the building does not need much attention in the early years. The failure of building envelopes suggest
that it is wise to have a building envelope inspection program in place that starts in the first year of occupancy in a
building and continues annually thereafter. If failure of the building envelope can be detected early, before obvious
damage is caused, the failing building envelope can be remedied at much less expense.

A building envelope problem likely exists if there is:
  • Stained of the interior wall surfaces
  • Water-damaged insulation above the ceiling tiles
  • Stained ceiling finishes
  • Moisture-damaged window soffits, jambs, and sills
  • Stained floor finishes, including rust stains from excessively wet steel-stud baseplates
  • Peeling paint / wallpaper
  • Cracking of interior finishes
  • Stains/dirt in operable window tracks
  • Odors
  • Mould or fungi formation
  • Wood rot
  • Water flowing down the sides of the building instead of running off from the eaves and drainpipes
  • Wind blowing through the walls
  • Cracked or missing sealants (caulking)
  • Water stains on inside the foundation
  • Gaps that allow the weather to get through the walls
  • •Windows that are wet on the inside
These problems may not all be related to a building envelope failure. Some may be localized maintenance items
that can be fixed relatively inexpensively.

If the condominium corporation does not have a schedule for maintenance and inspection of the building envelope:
  • Communicate the need for building envelope inspection in writing to the condominium board of directors.
  • Attend the Annual General Meeting (AGM) and explain why a building envelope inspection and maintenance
    program is important. If possible give examples of problems encountered by other condominium complexes
    that were aggravated by the lack of a building envelope inspection and maintenance program.
  • Put forth in a motion to the AGM the need for a building envelope inspection and maintenance program and
    that it is recorded in the minutes of the meeting.

Rainscreen assembly is a construction strategy for rain penetration control that relies on the deflection of the
majority of water at the cladding but also incorporates a cavity which provides a drainage path for water that
penetrates past the cladding. Rainscreen technology recognizes that some incidental water may penetrate the
exterior cladding, but allows this water to drain through the rainscreen cavity. Rainscreen technology can come in
many different designs, and has been evolving since it’s earliest use in the late 1940s.  The cladding is not air tight,
and in fact, deliberate openings are left to facilitate drainage and drying. The pressure drop therefore occurs
primarily at the sheathing paper. By moving the pressure drop away from the cladding, the driving force is removed
from the cladding, which greatly reduces the potential for water to move past it. The small amount of water that
does pass through the cladding drains through the cavity, leaving the interior of the wall assembly dry.

Many moisture troubled building envelopes must still be rehabilitated. The fact that some of these moisture troubled
building envelopes have been previously repaired and now require a second more extensive rehabilitation effort
underscores the need for guidance with respect to effective repair and rehabilitation measures.  The process of
rehabilitating a wood frame building has many steps, and decisions must be made at each stage. The fact that the
building is usually occupied during the rehabilitation of building envelope makes the process more complicated than
a new construction project.

Moisture and air infiltration cause dramatic energy losses and premature building envelope failures resulting in
unnecessary high maintenance expenses.

Adherence to building code does not guarantee a high-performing building envelope. Many buildings constructed
only to Ontario Building Code exhibit a lack of energy efficiency and durability, and experience significant building
envelope performance problems associated with air and moisture leakage.

Our detailed building envelope inspection report includes
  •    building’s exterior and interior environmental conditions and identification of areas of high humidity or
    unusual indirect conditions
  •    extent and severity of damage or symptoms of moisture problems
  •    causes of moisture related problems
  •    list each of the building envelope failures and the mechanisms involved
  •    appropriate conceptual rehabilitation work strategies
  •    approximate construction cost estimates and implementation plans

Our Building Envelope Inspection experts have the “BSSO” - Building Science Specialist of Ontario designation -   
Elite group of building science professionals dedicated to the implementation and effective use of Building Science
Principles in the Construction Industry of Ontario. 

Our well experienced building science experts inspect building envelopes, investigate building envelope failures
and provide cost effective solutions for building envelope problems.

We also provide strategies and procedures for cost-effective rehabilitation of moisture troubled building envelopes
to increase service life of building envelope components including masonry, EIFS / stucco, glazing, curtain walls
and water proofing  and to reduce maintenance and energy costs.

We inspect the condition of the building envelope and suggest remedies.  Our building envelope inspection experts
use a variety of techniques to inspect building envelopes:
  • how the water is getting in
  • why it is not draining
  • what path it is taking once it is inside the walls, and
  • how much damage has been done to the building.

Still have questions?

Call Us Anytime
416 332 1743 (24/7)

Text Messages
416 727 8336


Professional Engineers Ontario
Certificate of Authorization # 100205934
5215 Finch Avenue East Toronto ON M1S0C2
(416) 332 1743

We Know More Because We Inspect More


Our licensed professional engineers and building envelope inspection specialists have been involved in building
envelope inspection, building envelope maintenance and building envelope rehabilitation / replacement for many
years and helped thousands of building owners and property managers effectively manage their building
envelopes. Our licensed professional engineers and building envelope inspection specialists are well experienced
with all types of building envelope systems, including  masonry, EIFS / stucco, glazing, curtain walls and water
proofing components. Also our licensed professional engineers and building envelope inspection specialists
develop and tender complete building envelope repair specifications, and offer construction review services to
ensure the highest quality standards.

Our experienced qualified & certified building envelope inspection experts provide detailed in-depth building
envelope inspection reports to Building Owners, Condominium Corporations and Property Managers in Greater
Toronto Area including, Ajax, Aurora, Barrie, Belleville, Bolton, Brampton, Burlington, Caledon, Clarington,
Cobourg, Etobicoke, Georgetown, Guelph, Hamilton, Maple, Markham, Milton, Mississauga, Newmarket, North York,
Oakville, Oshawa, Peterborough, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Scarborough, Stouffville, Toronto, Vaughan, Uxbridge,
Whitby and Woodbridge. Our certified building envelope inspection experts offer recommendations based on the
current condition of the building envelope and building envelope components and remaining life expectancy of the
building envelope components.

Since our expert building envelope inspection experts are not affiliated with any building envelope component
manufacturers or contractors, they provide trusted, unbiased and independent third party professional  building
envelope inspection report. Whether it be a new building envelope, a repair / rehabilitation project, or simply a
matter of building envelope repairs, our professional building envelope inspection experts can inspect potential
problem areas and recommend proper solutions.

Our building envelope inspection includes:
  •  Inspection of current condition of the building envelope and its major components including the foundation,
    roof, walls, doors, windows, ceiling, and their related barriers and insulation.
  •  Inspection of building envelope drainage. .
  •  Estimated remaining useful life of the components of the building envelope
  •  Detailed list of building envelope deficiencies, including the building envelope components that require
    immediate repair and/or replacement,
  •  Recommendations for required short term and long term building envelope repairs, rehabilitation or
  •  Cost estimate for significant items for budgeting purposes
  •  Narrative building envelope inspection report of current condition of the building envelope

In a triple net lease, the tenant pays the landlord rent, property taxes, fire insurance, and the tenant’s share of
maintenance expenses for the property. The cost for future property taxes and fire insurance can be reasonably
estimated, But estimating and budgeting for future building envelope costs can be difficult without a professional
building envelope inspection.

We provide Expert Building Envelope Inspection certified by
Licensed Professional Engineers in Ontario with more than 25
years of Building Envelope Inspection experience.

Our Building Envelope Inspection Reports are acceptable to
any building envelope material manufacturer for their warranty

Our Building Envelope Inspection Report includes cost
effective preventive Building Envelope maintenance
recommendations to assist building owners, condominium
corporations and property managers.

Whether you own your first commercial property or an experienced investor who owns several buildings, owning a
commercial property is a very important financial commitment. Since the repairs and/or replacement of building
envelope on a commercial building can be very costly, knowing the actual condition of the building envelope is very
important. During our building envelope inspection we use state of the art diagnostic tools and equipment for non-
invasive inspection. Our expert building envelope inspection report provides an overview of the condition of the
building envelope and its components. Our building envelope inspection experts are dedicated to help the owners
of industrial, commercial, institutional and residential buildings with their due diligence to make sound decisions.
Our building envelope inspection experts provide important building envelope maintenance advice and follow up
support. We guarantee that our well experienced and qualified building envelope inspection experts will give you
their very best effort.  Our building envelope inspection experts' mission is to look out for the best interest of the
owner by inspecting every component of the building envelope as if we are the ones owning the building. Our  
building envelope inspection experts’ commitment to our clients has allowed us to become a leader in the building
envelope inspection industry. Our certified building envelope inspection experts’ experience and reputation sets us
apart from all the rest!

Our well experienced, qualified & certified building envelope inspection experts have completed thousands of
commercial, industrial, institutional & residential building envelope inspections including condominium buildings,
commercial strip plazas, apartment buildings, industrial warehouses, manufacturing plants, office buildings and
restaurants in Ontario including  Ajax, Aurora, Barrie, Belleville, Bolton, Brampton, Burlington, Caledon, Clarington,
Cobourg, Etobicoke, Georgetown, Guelph, Hamilton, Maple, Markham, Milton, Mississauga, Newmarket, North York,
Oakville, Oshawa, Peterborough, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Scarborough, Stouffville, Toronto, Vaughan, Uxbridge,
Whitby and Woodbridge.

Our building envelope inspection experts perform a quality oriented building envelope inspection rather than a time
and cost limited one. Our building envelope inspection experts offer a thorough building envelope inspection and
superior quality narrative building envelope inspection report, not just a check list building envelope inspection
report of items inspected, at reasonable price!

Our building envelope inspection experts determine whether the building envelope work is being performed in a
manner that, when fully completed, will be in accordance with the building envelope contract documents.

Our certified building envelope inspection experts perform evaluations of existing building envelopes, plan building
envelope design solutions, prepare building envelope construction documents, perform forensic building envelope
inspections, monitor building envelope construction, and serve as expert witnesses. Our building envelope
inspection experts possess a broad base of practical knowledge about the building envelope industry at large.

Our building envelope inspection experts strive to ensure that the project is constructed according to the contract
documents. Our building envelope inspection experts work to ensure that proper application procedures are
followed, and that criteria for validation of manufacturer’s warranties are met. Our building envelope inspection
experts have training, experience and familiarity with the project requirements and products being installed. Our
building envelope inspection experts have thorough understanding of the manufacturer’s materials and installation

The most significant factor contributing to  staggering amount of financial commitment towards building
envelope maintenance and replacement is the lack of a comprehensive pro-active approach towards
extending the service life of the existing building envelope components. Establish an inspection
schedule to anticipate trouble areas in the early stages. Minor problems can be identified and
corrected before building envelope leaks cause serious and costly damage to the building envelope
system and interior of the building. A regular building envelope inspection can greatly increase a
building envelope’s lifespan and give building owners peace of mind. Building envelope inspections
along with preventive maintenance are ongoing tasks that should not be neglected by the building
owners. We recommend having your building envelope inspected regularly.  Detecting a potential
building envelope leak and identifying the more-subtle problematic areas early enough can prolong the
useful building envelope components' life. The cost of a visual building envelope inspection is minimal
when compared to the amount of money required to replace an entire building envelope. Our
professional building envelope experts identify immediate and long-term necessary building envelope
repairs and provide recommendations for remedial actions and the costs associated with.

Our building envelope inspection experts have the  “BSSO” - Building Science Specialist of Ontario
designation -   Elite group of building science professionals dedicated to the implementation and
effective use of, Building Science Principles in the Construction Industry of Ontario.  Our building
envelope inspection experts also have the RRO (Registered Roof Observer) designation, which is
given only to the best in the roof inspection business.  Our professional building envelope inspection
experts are dedicated to continually upgrade their knowledge and education by attending professional
educational building science seminars, conferences and meetings, every year.

Our Building Envelope Inspection Specialists service Greater Toronto Area including Ajax, Aurora,
Barrie, Belleville, Bolton, Brampton, Burlington, Caledon, Clarington, Cobourg, Etobicoke, Georgetown,
Guelph, Hamilton, Maple, Markham, Milton, Mississauga, Newmarket, North York, Oakville, Oshawa,
Peterborough, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Scarborough, Stouffville, Toronto, Vaughan, Uxbridge, Whitby,
Bowmanville  and Woodbridge.

Visual Building Envelope Inspection by Professional Certified Building Envelope Expert
$375 plus $35 per 1,000 sq ft
Certification by Our Licensed Professional Engineer: Add $395

Infrared Scanning
$275 plus $25 per 1,000 sq ft

Inventory of building envelope system components and photographic documentation
$275 plus $25 per 1,000 sq ft

Building envelope CAD drawing with details
$275 plus $25 per 1,000 sq ft

Detailed building envelope CAD drawing, details & deficiencies
$275 plus $35 per 1,000 sq ft

Professional Engineers Ontario - Certificate of Authorization # 100205934
416 332 1743  (24/7)
Text Message: 416 727 8336
Our Building Envelope  Specialists service Greater Toronto Area including Ajax, Aurora, Barrie, Belleville, Bolton,
Brampton, Burlington, Caledon, Clarington, Cobourg, Etobicoke, Georgetown, Guelph, Hamilton, Maple, Markham,
Milton, Mississauga, Newmarket, North York, Oakville, Oshawa, Peterborough, Pickering, Richmond Hill,
Scarborough, Stouffville, Toronto, Vaughan, Uxbridge, Whitby, Bowmanville  and Woodbridge.

Exterior insulation and finishing system (EIFS) is a general class of non-load bearing building cladding systems that
provides exterior walls with an insulated, water-resistant, finished surface in an integrated composite material
system. In North America, EIFS was initially used almost exclusively on commercial, masonry buildings.  In the late
1980s problems started developing due to water leakage in EIFS-clad buildings. This created an international
controversy and numerous lawsuits. While not inherently more prone to water penetration than other exterior
finishes, barrier-type EIFS systems (non-water-managed systems) do not allow water that penetrates the building
envelope to escape. The EIFS industry has consistently maintained that the EIFS itself was not leaking, but rather
poor craftsmanship and bad architectural detailing at the perimeter of the EIFS was what was causing the problems.
The building codes reacted by mandating EIFS with a drainage system on wood frame buildings and additional on-
site inspection. Some facility owners have found that EIFS systems that are installed at lower building levels are
subject to vandalism as the material is soft and can be chipped or carved resulting in significant damage. If these
concerns exist specifying heavier ounce reinforcing mesh can be the answer, these specifications can drastically
increase the durability of the EIFS system. EIFS installation was found to be a contributing factor in the multi-billion
dollar problem known as the "Leaky condo crisis" in southwestern British Columbia and the "Leaky homes" issue in
New Zealand that emerged separately in the 1980s and 1990s.

EIFS with Drainage, another EIFS system, is the predominate method of EIFS applied today. As the name implies,
EIFS with Drainage provides a way for moisture that may accumulate in the wall cavity to evacuate. Although often
called "synthetic stucco", EIFS is not stucco. Traditional stucco is a centuries-old material which consists of
aggregate, a binder, and water, and is a hard, dense, thick, non-insulating material. EIFS is a lightweight synthetic
wall cladding that includes foam plastic insulation and thin synthetic coatings. There are also specialty stuccos that
use synthetic materials but no insulation, and these are also not EIFS. A common example is what is called one-
coat stucco, which is a thick, synthetic stucco applied in a single layer (traditional stucco is applied in 3 layers).
EIFS are proprietary systems of a particular EIFS manufacturer and consist of specific components. EIFS are not
generic products made from common separate materials. To function properly, EIFS needs to be architecturally
designed and installed as a system. The materials and installation methods specified by different EIFS
manufacturers are not all compatible and should not be used interchangeably in new construction or repair work.
The technical definition of an EIFS does not include wall framing, sheathing, flashings, caulking, water barriers,
windows, doors, and other wall components. However, some architects have begun specifying flashings, sealants,
and wiring fasteners as being a part of the EIFS scope of work, essentially requiring EIFS contractors to carry out
that work as well. The technical national consensus standard for the definition of an EIFS, as published by ASTM
International does not include flashing or sealants as part of the EIFS. Many of the EIFS manufacturers have their
own standard details showing typical building conditions for window and door flashings, control joints, inside/outside
corners, penetrations, and joints at dissimilar materials which should be followed for that manufacturers warranty.

EIFS is typically attached to the outside face of exterior walls with an adhesive (cementitious or acrylic based) or
mechanical fasteners. Adhesives are commonly used to attach EIFS to gypsum board, cement board, or concrete
substrates. EIFS is attached with mechanical fasteners (specially designed for this application) when installed over
housewraps (sheet-good weather barriers) such as are commonly used over wood sheathings. The supporting wall
surface should be continuous (not "open framing") and flat.

EIFS today are one of the most tested and well researched claddings in the construction industry. Research,
conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and supported by the Department of Energy, has validated that
EIFS are the "best performing cladding" in relation to thermal and moisture control when compared to brick, stucco,
and cementitious fiberboard siding. In addition EIFS is in full compliance with modern building codes which
emphasize energy conservation through the use of CI (continuous insulation) and a continuous air barrier. Both
these components are built into today's EIFS products to provide maximum energy savings, reduced environmental
impact over the life of the structure, and improved IAQ, Indoor Air Quality. Along with these functional advantages
come virtually unlimited color, texture, and decorative choices to enhance curb appeal and enjoyment of almost any
home or structure.

EIFS before 2000 was a barrier system, meaning the EIFS system itself was the weather barrier. After 2000 the
EIFS industry introduced the air/moisture barrier that resides behind the foam. In a study done by the Department
Of Energy's Office of Science - Oak Ridge National Laboratory it was found that the best air/moisture barrier was a
fluid barrier. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ATLANTA, Oct. 28, 2006 — EIFS "outperformed all other walls in
terms of moisture while maintaining superior thermal performance." The National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) have evaluated the 5 life cycle stages of the environmental impact of EIFS alongside brick,
aluminum, stucco, vinyl, and cedar. Depending on a variety of site and project specific conditions, EIFS has the
potential to save money in construction costs and contribute toward energy efficient operations and environmental
responsibility when correctly designed and executed.

EIFS have also passed a variety of fire tests that range from resistance to ignitability, that include: ASTM E 119,
NFPA 268, NFPA 285, ANSI FM 4880.

Types of EIFS are defined by their materials and the existence/absence of a drainage plane. The EIFS Industry
Manufacturers Association (EIMA) defines two classes of EIFS, Class PB (polymer based) identified as PB EIFS and
Class PM (polymer modified) identified as PM EIFS.

PB EIFS is the most common type in North America and historically used expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation
adhered to the substrate with fiberglass mesh embedded in a nominal 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) base coat which can
receive additional layers of mesh and base coat for stronger impact resistance. Other types of insulation board can
include polyisocyanurate.

PM EIFS use extruded polystyrene insulation (XEPS), and a thick, cementitious base coat applied over
mechanically attached glass fiber reinforcing mesh. The system has joints similar to traditional stucco. PM EIFS
have evolved to include different insulation materials and base coats.

The most common type of EIFS used today is the system that includes a drainage cavity, which allows any and all
moisture to exit the wall. EIFS with drainage typically consists of the following components:

An optional water-resistive barrier (WRB) that covers the substrate
A drainage plane between the WRB and the insulation board that is most commonly achieved with vertical ribbons
of adhesive applied over the WRB
Insulation board typically made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) which is secured with an adhesive or mechanically
to the substrate
Glass-fiber reinforcing mesh embedded in the base coat
A water-resistant base coat that is applied on top of the insulation to serve as a weather barrier
A finish coat that typically uses colorfast and crack-resistant acrylic co-polymer technology.

If an EIFS with Drainage, or water-managed EIFS is installed, a water resistive barrier (aka a WRB) is first installed
over the substrate (generally glass faced exterior-grade gypsum sheathing, oriented strand board (OSB) or
plywood).[citation needed] The moisture barrier is applied to the entire wall surface with a mesh tape over joints
and a liquid-applied membrane or a protective wrap like tyvek or felt paper. Then a drainage cavity is created
(usually by adding some sort of space between the foam and the WRB). Then the other 3 layers, described above,
are added. This type of EIFS is required by many building codes areas on wood frame construction, and is
intended to provide a path for incidental water that may get behind the EIFS with a safe route back to the outside.
The purpose is to preclude water from damaging the supporting wall.

Adhesives and finishes are water-based, and thus must be installed at temperatures well above freezing. Two types
of adhesives are used with EIFS: those that contain Portland cement ("cementitious"), or do not have any Portland
cement ("cementless"). Adhesives that contain Portland cement harden by the chemical reaction of the cement with
water. Adhesives and finishes that are cementless harden by the evaporation of water. Adhesives come in two
forms: The most common is in a plastic pail as a paste, to which Portland cement is added and as dry powders in
sacks, to which water is added. Finishes come in a plastic pail, ready to use, like paint. EIFS insulation comes in
individual pieces, usually 2' x 4', in large bags. The pieces are trimmed to fit the wall at the construction site.

Common Problems for EIFS are as follows:
  •    Failure to install or properly install sealant joints around windows, doors, pipes, conduits, and other
    penetrations of the field of the EIFS.
  •    Failure to flash window and door openings in the field of the EIFS to divert leakage through the window or
    door to the exterior.
  •    Failure to install diverters (kick-out flashing) at ends of roof flashing terminating in the EIFS wall.
  •    Failure to properly backwrap edges of EIFS at terminations and penetrations in the field of the EIFS.
  •    Failure to install expansion joints at floor lines in EIFS applied over wood frame construction.
  •    Failure to notch insulation boards at corners of openings for windows and doors to avoid insulation board
    joint at the corner of the opening.
  •    Failure to install diagonal mesh in lamina at corners of openings for windows and doors.
  •    Installation of decks over EIFS without proper flashing.
  •    Unrepaired impact damage.
  •    Inadequate base coat applications at corners.
  •    Inadequate base and finish coat application in reveals.
  •    Installation of reveals at board joints.
  •    Lack of adequate slope on skyward facing surfaces.
  •    Damage from ropes, cables, etc. to EIFS parapet tops.

The EIFS manufacturers sell the various system components (adhesives, coatings, etc.) through specialty building
product distributors who in turn resell the components to local EIFS installers. The top 5 EIFS producers Dryvit
Systems, STO Corp., BASF Wall Systems, Master Wall, and Parex - account for about 90% of the market. Another
benefit of EIFS is the option to add architectural details that are composed of the same materials. EIFS mouldings
or as they are commonly referred to, stucco mouldings, come in a large variety of shapes and sizes. They are
widely used on residential/commercial projects in North America and are gaining popularity worldwide. Production
methods have come a long way since their inception which allow manufacturers to create with great efficiency in a
cost effective manner.